What Genes Are Responsible for Breast Cancer

Breast cancer occurs when cancer develops in breast cells. Cancer usually forms in the lobules and ducts of breast cells. Breast cancer is most common in women but rare in men. One in eight women will develop breast cancer, according to research. This is because it is often not diagnosed early. It is the most prevalent cancer worldwide and can cause death. Breast cancer can also affect men.

Gene mutation is one of the leading causes of breast cancer. Genes (deoxyribonucleic acids) are short segments of DNA that can be found in chromosomes and contain instructions for creating proteins. These proteins control the structure and performance of all cells in your body. Breast cancer is more likely if you inherit a defective or mutated copy of one of your parent’s genes.

Signs and symptoms of breast cancer

Changes in the nipples, lumps or swelling of the breasts are the most common symptoms. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention says many other symptoms exist. Some tumours may not be cancerous.

These symptoms are not indicative of infection and should be avoided. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and have the tests performed.

  • Cancer can also manifest as reddening or dehydrated, orange-coloured skin. Take care of any changes in the skin around the breasts.
  • If one breast is large or visible, consult a doctor immediately.
  • The breasts and other body areas are the most obvious signs. A sign of cancer may also include injuries to the upper chest.
  • Breast pain is a common symptom of menstruation for women. This type of pain occurs before the Follicular Stage and disappears shortly after the next period. However, it is worth getting tested if you feel pain after menstruation.
  • A discharge from your nipples usually accompanies infections. Similar releases can be caused by minor injuries or benign tumour growth.
  • Tumours with different shapes.
  • Changes can also influence breast cancer symptoms in the nipples. Cancer can be detected in nipples that have been inverted or diverted.

Genetics That Affect Breast Cancer

Each cell in the body contains DNA. There are trillions of them. It acts as the cell’s guide and controls how it functions. Every piece of DNA has 1000 genes. Each piece of DNA must contain copies of each gene. We always inherit one copy from the mother and one from the father. These genes affect our height, eye colour, and health status.

Certain genes can prevent cancer by controlling cell division and the growth of tumour suppressor genes. BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are linked to breast cancer. A woman who has a BRCA1 mutation or BRCA2 mutation will be seven times more likely than a woman without treatment to get breast cancer.

Sporadic cancer is caused by acquired damage. A person with hereditary cancer has one mutation and one copy of the tumour suppressor genes. Hereditary cancers affect 5-10% of the population. There is always the possibility that a single normal gene could become a mutation at any moment. This doesn’t cause cancer to grow, but it can increase the chance of a tumour forming. Cancer is genetic. An accumulation of genetic damage causes all cancers. The chance of passing on cancer to the next generation is 50-50 for hereditary cancers. You can pass on the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes to the next generation.

Studies have shown that women with mutations in either the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are at greater risk for breast cancer. These BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are very rare in the general population. According to many studies, breast cancer rates range from 50 to 80%. Breast cancer is not common in all women with a gene mutation. However, the risk of developing it is very high.

Types Of Breast Cancer

  • DCIS – Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), cancer found in milk ducts
  • IDC – Invasive ductal carcinoma
  • ILC – Invasive lobular carcinoma
  • Triple-negative breast carcinoma

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations do not mean you are likely to develop breast cancer. Researchers are now studying whether different chromosome mutations, referred to as SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), can lead to a higher risk of breast cancer in women with a BRCA1 mutation and those who didn’t inherit a breast tumour gene mutation.

Breast cancer is often diagnosed in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. These women have family records that include ovarian, breast, and other cancers. However, most breast cancer patients don’t inherit a breast cancer-related genetic mutation and have no family history.

Treatments For Breast Cancer

After being diagnosed with breast cancer, you will need to consult a specialist to discuss the best treatment options based on your diagnosis. There are many options for treatment, including radiation and drug therapy.

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